APPENDIX 5-C. ACCEPTABLE METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

Table of Contents

Effective Date: May 26, 2004

I. INORGANIC CHEMICALS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Table 1 and 2, Subpart 5-1)

A.

(1) Laboratory Certification — to receive approval to conduct analyses for Inorganic Chemicals in public drinking water, the laboratory must:

(a) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include those substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State.

(b) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:

ContaminantAcceptance Limit
Antimony±30% at ≥0.006 mg/l
Arsenic±30% at ≥0.003 mg/l
Asbestos2 standard deviations based on study statistics
Barium±15% at ≥ 0.15 mg/l
Beryllium±15% at ≥ 0.001 mg/l
Cadmium±20% at ≥ 0.002 mg/l
Chromium±15% at ≥ 0.01 mg/l
Cyanide±25% at ≥ 0.1 mg/l
Fluoride±10% at ≥ 1 to 10 mg/l
Mercury±30% at ≥ 0.0005 mg/l
Nickel±15% at ≥ 0.01 mg/l
Nitrate±10% at ≥ 0.4 mg/l
Nitrite±15% at ≥ 0.4 mg/l
Selenium±20% at ≥ 0.01 mg/l
Thallium±30% at ≥ 0.002 mg/l

Effective Date: November 01, 2006

B. Approved Methods for the analysis of INORGANIC CHEMICALS

ContaminantMethodology1EPA MethodsReference Method Number
ASTM Methods2Standard Methods3Other Methods4
AlkalinityElectrometric TitrationI-1030-856
TitrimetricD1067-92B2320B
AluminumAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
AmmoniaColorimetric: Automated Phenate350.17
Antimony22 Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
Hydride-Atomic AbsorptionD3697-92
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Arsenic8 , 22Atomic Absorption; FurnaceD2972-93C3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
Hydride-Atomic AbsorptionD2972-93B3114B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85,24
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 , 23,243120B23,24
AsbestosTransmission Electron Microscopy100.19
Transmission Electron Microscopy100.210
BariumAtomic Absorption; Direct
Aspiration3111D
Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
BerylliumAtomic Absorption; FurnaceD3645-93B3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
BromateIon Chromatography300.111
BromideIon Chromatography300.07
Ion Chromatography300.111
CadmiumAtomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75
Calcium12 Atomic Absorption; Direct AspirationD511-93B3111B
EDTA TitrimetricD511-93A3500-Ca-D
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
ChlorideIon Chromatography300.07 D4327-914110B
Potentiometric Method4500-Cl--D
ChloriteAmperometric Titration13 4500-ClO2-E14
Ion Chromatography300.07
Ion Chromatography300.111
ChromiumAtomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
ColorVisual Comparison Method2120B
ConductivityConductanceD1125-91A2510B
Copper12 Atomic Absorption; Direct AspirationD1688-90A3111B
Atomic Absorption; FurnaceD1688-90C3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
CyanideManual Distillation followed by4500-CN-C
Spectrophotometric, AmenableD2036-91B4500-CN-G
Spectrophotometric: ManualD2036-91A4500-CN-EI-3300-856
Spectrophotometric: Semiautomated335.47 4500-CN-E
Selective Electrode4500-CN-F
FluorideAutomated Alizarin4500F-E129-71W15
Automated Electrode380-75WE15
Ion Chromatography300.07 D4327-914110B
Manual Distillation; Colormetric SPADNS4500F-B,D
Manual Distillation; Manual ElectrodeD1179-93B4500F-C
Foaming AgentsSurfactants5540C
IronAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.93 3113B
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.73 3120B
Lead12, 22Atomic Absorption; FurnaceD3559-90D3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry100116
MagnesiumAtomic AbsorptionD511-93B3111B
Inductively Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
Complexation Titrimetric MethodsD511-93A3500-Mg-E
ManganeseAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Mercury22 Automated, Cold Vapor245.217
Manual, Cold Vapor245.15 D3223-913112B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
NickelAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
NitrateAutomated Cadmium Reduction353.27 D3867-90A4500-NO3-F
Ion Chromatography300.07 D4327-914110BB-101118
Ion Selective Electrode4500-NO3-D60119
Manual Cadmium ReductionD3867-90B4500-NO3-E
NitriteAutomated Cadmium Reduction353.27 D3867-90A4500-NO3-F
Ion Chromatography300.07 D4327-914110BB-101118
Manual Cadmium ReductionD3867-90B4500-NO3-E
Spectrophotometric4500-NO2-B
Odor2150B
Orthophosphate20 Colorimetric, Ascorbic Acid, Single ReagentD515-88A4500-P-E
Colorimetric, Ascorbic Acid, Two Reagent
Colorimetric, Automated, Ascorbic Acid365.17 4500-P-F
Colorimetric, Phosphomolybdate;
Automated Discrete;
Automated-Segmented Flow
I-1601-856
I-2598-856
I-2601-906
Ion Chromotography300.07 D4327-914110-B
pHElectrometric150.117 D1293-84B4500-H+-B
Electrometric150.217
Selenium22 Atomic Absorption; FurnaceD3859-93B3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
Hydride-Atomic AbsorptionD3859-93A3114B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
SilicaAutomated Method for Molybdate-Reactive Silica4500-Si-F
ColorimetricD859-88
Colorimetric, Molybdate Blue; Automated-Segmented FlowI-1700-856
I-2700-856
Heteropoly Blue4500-Si-E
Inductively-Coupled Plasma4 200.75 3120B
Molybdosilicate4500-Si-D
SilverAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Atomic Absorption; Furnace3113B
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120BI-3720-8521
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
SodiumAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 4200.75
SulfateAutomated Chloranilate
Automated Methylthymol Blue375.27 D516-904500-SO42--F
Gravimetric4500-SO42--C,D
Ion Chromotography300.07 D4327-914110B
Turbidimetric 4500-SO42--E
TDSSolids - TDS Dried at 180°C2540C
TemperatureThermometric2550
ThalliumAtomic Absorption; Furnace
Atomic Absorption; Platform200.95
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85
ZincAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration3111B
Inductively-Coupled Plasma200.75 3120B
ICP-Mass Spectrometry200.85

Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA’s Drinking Water Docket, 410 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460 (Telephone: 202-2603027); or at the Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.

1 Because MDLs reported in EPA Methods 200.7 and 200.9 were determined using a 2X preconcentration step during sample digestion, MDLs determined when samples are analyzed by direct analysis (i.e., no sample digestion) will be higher. For direct analysis of cadmium and arsenic by Method 200.7, and arsenic by Method 3120 B samples preconcentration using pneumatic nebulization may be required to achieve lower detection limits. Preconcentration may also be required for direct analysis or antimony, lead, and thallium by Method 200.9; antimony and lead by Method 3113 B; and lead by Method D3559-90D unless multiple in-furnace depositions are made.

2 “Annual Book of ASTM Standards”, 1994 and 1996, Vols. 11.01 and 11.02, American Society for Testing and Materials. The previous versions of D1688-95A, D1688-95C (copper), D3559-95D (lead), D1293-95 (pH), D1125-91A (conductivity) and D859-88, respectively are located in the “Annual Book of ASTM Standards”, 1994, Vol. 11.01. Copies may be obtained from the American Society of Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

3 18th, and 19th editions of “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 1992 and 1995, respectively, American Public Health Association; any edition may be used. Copies may be obtained from the American Public Health Association.

4 "Other" draws reference to other consensus organizations, such as USGS, or private sector company that has developed an approved analytical method.

5 “Methods for the Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples — Supplement I", EPA-600/R-94/111, May 1994. Available at NTIS, PB95-125472.

6 Method I-2601-90, “Methods for Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Inorganic and Organic Constituents in Water and Fluvial Sediments”, Open File Report 93-125, 1993; For Methods I-1030-85; I-1601-85; I-1700-85; I-2598-85; I- 2700-85; and I-3300-85. See “Techniques of Water Resource Investigation of the U.S. Geological Survey”, Book 5, Chapter A-1, 3rd Edition, 1989; Available from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225-0425.

7 “Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples”, EPA-600/R-93/100, August 1993. Available at NTIS, PB94- 120821.

8 If ultrasonic nebulization is used in the determination of arsenic by Methods 200.7, 200.8, or SM 3120B, the arsenic must be in the pentavalent state to provide uniform signal response. For Methods 200.7 and 3120B, both samples and standards must be diluted in the same mixed acid matrix concentration of nitric and hydrochloric acid with the addition of 100 mL of 30% hydrogen peroxide per 100 ml of solution. For direct analysis of arsenic with Method 200.8 using ultrasonic nebulization, samples and standards must contain one mg/L of sodium hypochlorite.

9 Method 100.1, “Analytical Method for Determination of Asbestos Fibers in Water”, EPA-600/4-83-043, September 1983. Available at NTIS, PB83-260471.

10 Method 100.2, “Determination of Asbestos Structures Over 10 mm in Length in Drinking Water”, EPA/600/R-94/134, June 1994. Available at NTIS, PB94-201902.

11 EPA Method 300.1 is titled “USEPA Method 300.1, Determination of Inorganic Anions in Drinking Water by Ion Chromotography”, Revision 1.0, USEPA, 1997, EPA/600R-98/118 (available through NTIS, PB98-169196; also available from: Chemical Exposure Research Branch, Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, Fax Number: 513-569-7757. Phone Number: 513-569-7586.

12 Samples may not be filtered. Samples that contain less than 1 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit) and are properly preserved (concentrated nitric acid to pH<2) may be analyzed directly (without digestion) for total metals, otherwise, digestion is required. Turbidity must be measured on the preserved samples just prior to the initiation of metal analysis. When digestion is required, the total recoverable technique as defined in the method must be used.

13 Amperometric titration may be used for routine daily monitoring of chlorite at the entrance to the distribution system. Ion chromatography must be used for routine monthly monitoring of chlorite and additional monitoring of chlorite in the distribution system.

14 For the analysis of chlorite using SM 4500-ClO2-E , the version contained in the 19th Edition of “Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 1995, must be used.

15 Industrial Method No. 129-71W, “Fluoride in Water and Wastewater”, December 1972, and Method NO. 380-75WE, “Fluoride in Water and Wastewater”, February 1976, Technicon Industrial Systems. Copies may be obtained from Bran & Luebbe, 1025 Busch Parkway, Buffalo Grove, IL, 60089.

16 The description for Method Number 1001 for lead is available from Palintest, LTC, 21 Kenton Lands Road, P.O. Box 18395, Erlanger, KY 41018 or from Hach Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 8053.

17 “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes”, EPA-600/4-79/020, March 1983. Available at NTIS, PB-95-125472.

18 Method B-1011,“Waters Test Method for Determination of Nitrite/Nitrate in Water Using Single Column Ion Chromatography”, Millipore Corporation, Waters Chromatography Division, 34 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757.

19 The procedure shall be done in accordance with Technical Bulletin 601“Standard Method of Test for Nitrate in Drinking Water”, July 1994, PN 221890-001, Analytical Technology Inc. Copies may be obtained from ATI Orion, 529 Main Street, Boston, MA 02129.

20 Unfiltered, no digestion or hydrolysis.

21 Method I-3720-85, “Techniques of Water Resources Investigation of the U. S. Geological Survey”, Book 5, Chapter A-1, 3rd Edition, 1989; Available from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225-0425.

22 There are three technologies for which compliance determinations of total metals require an acid digestion of the sample even if the turbidity of the sample is less than 1 NTU. The three technologies and the applicable metals are cold vapor AA (mercury), DPASV (lead), and gaseous hydride AA (antimony, arsenic and selenium).

23 After January 23, 2006 analytical methods using the ICP-AES technology, may not be used because the detection limits for these methods are 0.008 mg/L or higher. This restriction means that the two ICP-AES methods (EPA Method 200.7 and SM 3120 B) approved for use for the MCL of 0.05 mg/L may not be used for compliance determinations for the revised MCL of 0.01mg/L. However, prior to 2005 systems may have compliance samples analyzed with these less sensitive methods.

24 If ultrasonic nebulization is used in the determination of arsenic by EPA Method 200.8, the arsenic must be in the pentavalent state to provide uniform signal response. For methods 200.7 and 3120 B, both samples and standards must be diluted in the same mixed acid matrix concentration of nitric and hydrochloric acid with the addition of 100 µL of 30% hydrogen peroxide per 100ml of solution. For direct analysis of arsenic with method 200.8 using ultrasonic nebulization, samples and standards must contain one mg/L of sodium hypochlorite.

Effective Date: May 26, 2004

C. Sample Collection and Preservation Requirements for Inorganic Chemicals

Sample collection for the inorganic chemicals under this section shall be conducted using the sample preservation, container, and maximum holding time procedures specified in the following table:

ParameterPreservative1 Sample Holding Time2 Sample Container SizeType of Container
Alkalinity4°C14 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
AluminumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Ammonia4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 228 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
AntimonyHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
ArsenicHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Asbestos3 4°C48 hours800 mL in duplicate Plastic or Glass
BariumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
BerylliumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Bromate50 mg/L EDA28 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
BromideNone28 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
CadmiumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
CalciumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
ChlorideNone28 days50 mL Plastic or Glass
Chlorite4°C, 50 mg/L EDA14 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
ChromiumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Color4°C48 hours50 mL Plastic or Glass
Conductivity4°C28 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
CopperHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Cyanide4°C, NaOH to pH >12, Ascorbic Acid4 14 days1 L Plastic or Glass
FluorideNone1 month300 mL Plastic or Glass
Foaming Agents4°C48 hours500 mL Plastic or Glass
IronHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
LeadHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
MagnesiumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
ManganeseHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Mercury4 HNO3 to pH < 228 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
NickelHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Nitrate4°C48 hours5 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Nitrate-Nitrite6 4°C, H2SO4 to pH < 228 days100 mL Plastic or Glass
Nitrite4°C48 hours50 mL Plastic or Glass
Odor4°C24 hours200 mLGlass
OrthophosphateFilter immediately, 4°C48 hours50 mL Plastic or Glass
pHNoneImmediately25 mLPlastic or Glass
SeleniumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Silica4°C28 days50 mL Plastic
SilverHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
SodiumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
Sulfate4°C28 days50 mLPlastic or Glass
TDSNone7 days100 mLPlastic or Glass
TemperatureNoneImmediately1 LPlastic or Glass
ThalliumHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass
ZincHNO3 to pH < 26 months1 L Plastic or Glass

1 For cyanide determinations, samples must be adjusted with sodium hydroxide to pH > 12 at the time of collection. When chilling is indicated the sample must be shipped and stored at 4°C or less. Acidification of nitrate or metals samples may be with a concentrated acid. Acidification of samples for metals analysis is encouraged and allowed at the laboratory rather than at the time of sampling provided the shipping time and other instructions in Section 8.3 of EPA Methods 200.7 or 200.8 or 200.9 are followed.

2 In all cases, samples should be analyzed as soon after collection as possible. Follow additional (if any) information on preservation, containers or holding times that is specified in the method.

3 Instructions for containers, preservation procedures and holding times as specified in Method 100.2 must be adhered to for all compliance analyses including those conducted with Method 100.1.

4 If the sample container is plastic, the holding time is 14 days.

5 If the sample is chlorinated, the holding time for an unacidified samples kept at 4°C is extended to 14 days.

6 Nitrate-Nitrite refers to a measurement of total nitrate.

(1) Compositing Requirements

The State may reduce the total number of samples which must be analyzed by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a maximum of five samples are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory.

If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to one-fifth of the MCL of any inorganic chemical, then a follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite. These samples must be analyzed for the contaminants that exceeded one-fifth of the MCL in the composite sample.

D. Detection Limits for Analytical Methods for Selected Inorganic Chemicals

ContaminantMethodologyDetection Limit (mg/L)
AntimonyAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.003
Atomic Absorption; Platform0.00081
Hydride-Atomic Absorption0.001
ICP-Mass Spectrometry0.0004
ArsenicAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform0.00053
Atomic Absorption; Gaseous Hydride0.001
ICP-Mass Spectrometry0.00144
AsbestosTransmission Electron Microscopy0.01 MFL
BariumAtomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration0.1
Atomic Absorption; Furnace0.002
ICP-Mass Spectrometry
Inductively-Coupled Plasma0.002 (0.001)
BerylliumAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.0002
Atomic Absorption; Platform0.000021
ICP-Mass Spectrometry0.0003
Inductively-Coupled Plasma50.0003
CadmiumAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.0001
Inductively-Coupled Plasma0.001
ChromiumAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.001
Inductively-Coupled Plasma0.007 (0.001)
CyanideDistillation, Spectrophotometric6 0.02
Distillation, Automated, Spectrophotometric60.005
Distillation, Selective Electrode6 0.05
Distillation, Amenable, Spectrophotometric70.02
MercuryAutomated, Cold Vapor0.0002
Manual, Cold Vapor0.0002
NickelAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform0.00061
ICP-Mass Spectrometry0.0005
Inductively-Coupled Plasma50.005
NitrateAutomated Cadmium Reduction0.05
Ion Chromatography0.01
Ion Selective Electrode1
Manual Cadmium Reduction0.01
NitriteAutomated Cadmium Reduction0.05
Ion Chromatography0.004
Manual Cadmium Reduction0.01
Spectrophotometric0.01
SeleniumAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.002
Hydride-Atomic Absorption0.002
ThalliumAtomic Absorption; Furnace0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform0.000071
ICP-Mass Spectrometry0.0003

1 Lower MDLs are reported using stabilized temperature graphite furnace atomic absorption.

2 The value in parentheses "( )" is effective January 23, 2006.

3 The MDL reported for EPA Method 200.9 (Atomic Absorption; Platform) was determined using a 2X concentration step during sample digestion. The MDL determined for samples analyzed using direct analyses (i.e., no sample digestion) will be higher. Using multiple depositions, EPA 200.9 is capable of obtaining a MDL of 0.0001 mg/L.

4 Using selective ion monitoring, EPA Method 200.8 (ICP-MS) is capable of obtaining a MDL of 0.0001 mg/L.

5 Using a 2X preconcentration step as noted in Method 200.7. Lower MDLs may be achieved when using a 4X preconcentration.

6 Screening method for total cyanides.

7 Measures “free” cyanides.

E. Lead and Copper

(1) Laboratory Certification — to obtain certification to conduct analyses for lead and copper, environmental laboratories must:

(a) Analyze performance evaluation samples which include lead and copper provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State; and

(b) Achieve quantitative acceptance limits as follows:

(i) For lead: ± 30 percent of the actual amount in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.005 mg/L. The Practical Quantitation Level, or PQL for lead is 0.005 mg/L.

(ii) For copper: ± 10 percent of the actual amount in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.050 mg/L. The Practical Quantitation Level, or PQL for copper is 0.050 mg/L.

(c) Achieve method detection limits as follows:

(i) Lead: 0.001 mg/L; and

(ii) Copper: 0.001 mg/L or 0.020 mg/L when atomic absorption direct aspiration is used.

(d) The State has the authority to allow the use of previously collected monitoring data for purposes of monitoring, if the data were collected and analyzed in accordance with the requirements of this Appendix.

(e) All lead and copper levels measured between the PQL and MDL must be either reported as measured or they can be reported as one-half the PQL and MDL specified for lead and copper in subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of this section. All levels below the lead and copper MDLs must be reported as zero.

II. ORGANIC CHEMICALS

A. Principal Organic Contaminants (Table 9D)

(1) Laboratory Certification — the analysis of Principal Organic Contaminants (POCs) shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received approval of the State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) according to the following approval conditions:

a. Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include those substances provided by EPA Environmental and Support Laboratory or proficiency samples provided by the State ELAP system.

b. Achieve the quantitative acceptance limits under the following paragraphs (c) and (d) for at least 80 percent of the regulated organic chemicals listed in II.A.(2).

c. Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under (a) above that are within ± 20 percent to the actual amount of the substances in the performance evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.010 mg/l.

d. Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under paragraph (a) above that are within ± 40 percent of the actual amount of the substances in the performance evaluation sample when the actual amount is less than 0.010 mg/l.

e. Achieve a method detection limit of 0.0005 mg/L.

(2) Approved Methods - the analysis of Principal Organic Contaminants and vinyl chloride shall be conducted using the following methods:

ContaminantCAS No.1 EPA Analytical Method2
Benzene71-43-2502.2, 524.2
Bromobenzene108-86-1502.2, 524.2
Bromochloromethane74-97-5502.2, 524.2
Bromomethane74-83-9502.2, 524.2
n-Butylbenzene104-51-8502.2, 524.2
sec-Butylbenzene135-98-8502.2, 524.2
tert-Butylbenzene98-06-6502.2, 524.2
Carbon tetrachloride56-23-5502.2, 524.2, 551.1
Chlorobenzene108-90-7502.2, 524.2
Chloroethane75-00-3502.2, 524.2
Chloromethane74-87-3502.2, 524.2
2-Chlorotoluene95-49-8502.2, 524.2
4-Chlorotoluene106-43-4502.2, 524.2
Dibromomethane74-95-3502.2, 524.2
1,2-Dichlorobenzene95-50-1502.2, 524.2
1,3-Dichlorobenzene541-73-1502.2, 524.2
1,4-Dichlorobenzene106-46-7502.2, 524.2
Dichlorodifluoromethane75-71-8502.2, 524.2
1,1-Dichloroethane75-34-3502.2, 524.2
1,2-Dichloroethane107-06-2502.2, 524.2
1,1-Dichloroethene75-35-4502.2, 524.2
cis-1,2-Dichloroethene156-59-4502.2, 524.2
trans-1,2-Dichloroethene156-60-5502.2, 524.2
1,2-Dichloropropane78-87-5502.2, 524.2
1,3-Dichloropropane142-28-9502.2, 524.2
2,2-Dichloropropane590-20-7502.2, 524.2
1,1-Dichloropropene563-58-6502.2, 524.2
cis-1,3-Dichloropropene10061-01-5502.2, 524.2
trans-1,3-Dichloropropene10061-02-6502.2, 524.2
Ethylbenzene100-41-4502.2, 524.2
Hexachlorobutadiene87-68-3502.2, 524.2
Isopropylbenzene98-82-8502.2, 524.2
4-Isopropyltoluene99-87-6502.2, 524.2
Methylene chloride75-09-2502.2, 524.2
n-Propylbenzene103-65-1502.2, 524.2
Styrene100-42-5502.2, 524.2
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane630-20-6502.2, 524.2
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane79-34-5502.2, 524.2
Tetrachloroethene127-18-4502.2, 524.2, 551.1
Toluene108-88-3502.2, 524.2
1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene87-61-6502.2, 524.2
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene120-82-1502.2, 524.2
1,1,1-Trichloroethane71-55-6502.2, 524.2, 551.1
1,1,2-Trichloroethane79-00-5502.2, 524.2, 551.1
Trichloroethene79-01-6502.2, 524.2, 551.1
Trichlorofluoromethane75-69-4502.2, 524.2
1,2,3-Trichloropropane96-18-4502.2, 524.2
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene95-63-6502.2, 524.2
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene108-67-8502.2, 524.2
Vinyl chloride75-01-4502.2, 524.2
m-Xylene95-47-6502.2, 524.2
o-Xylene108-38-3502.2, 524.2
p-Xylene106-42-3502.2, 524.2

1 CAS No. — Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number

2 Method Detection Limit — 0.0005 mg/l

B. Pesticides, Dioxin, and PCBs (Table 9C)

(1) Laboratory Certification — Analysis for Pesticides, Dioxin, and PCBs shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received approval of the State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) according to the following approval conditions:

a. Analyze Performance Evaluation samples that include those substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State.

b. Laboratories must achieve quantitative results within the acceptance limits on 80% of the analytes included in the PT sample. Acceptance is defined as within the 95% confidence interval around the mean of the PT study data.

c. Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:

ContaminantAcceptance Limit
Alachlor±45%
Aldicarb2 standard deviations
Aldicarb sulfone2 standard deviations
Aldicarb sulfoxide2 standard deviations
Atrazine ±45%
Benzo(a)pyrene2 standard deviations
Carbofuran ±45%
Chlordane ±45%
2,4-D (as acid salts and esters) ±50%
Dalapon2 standard deviations
Dibromochloropropane ±40%
Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate2 standard deviations
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate2 standard deviations
Dinoseb2 standard deviations
Diquat2 standard deviations
Endothall2 standard deviations
Endrin ±30%
Ethylene dibromide (EDB) ±40%
Glyphosate2 standard deviations
Heptachlor ±45%
Heptachlor epoxide ±45%
Hexachlorobenzene2 standard deviations
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene2 standard deviations
Lindane ±45%
Methoxychlor ±45%
Oxamyl (Vydate)2 standard deviations
PCBs (as Aroclors) (as decachlorobiphenyl)0 — 200%
Pentachlorophenol ±50%
Picloram2 standard deviations
Simazine2 standard deviations
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) ±50%
Toxaphene ±45%
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)2 standard deviations

(2) Approved Methods - the analysis of Pesticides, Dioxin, and PCBs shall be conducted using the following methods:

ContaminantCAS No.1Detection Limit (mg/l)2,3Analytical Method
Alachlor415972-60-80.0002505, 507, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Aldicarb116-06-30.0005531.1, SM-6610
Aldicarb sulfone1646-87-40.0008531.1, SM-6610
Aldicarb sulfoxide1646-87-30.0005531.1, SM-6610
Aldrin309-00-20.075505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Atrazine41912-24-90.0001505, 507, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Benzo(a)pyrene50-32-80.00002525.2, 550, 550.1
Butachlor23184-66-90.38507, 525.2
Carbaryl63-25-22.0531.1, SM-6610
Carbofuran1563-66-20.0009531.1, SM-6610
Chlordane (Technical)57-74-90.0002505, 508, 508.1,525.2
Dalapon75-99-00.001515.1, 515.3, 552.1, 552.2
Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate103-23-10.0006506, 525.2
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate117-81-70.0006506, 525.2
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)96-12-80.00002504.1, 551.1
Dicamba1918-00-90.081515.1, 515.2, 555
2,4-D (as acid, salts and esters)94-75-70.0001515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
Dieldrin60-57-10.02505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Dinoseb588-85-70.0002515.1, 515.2, 515.3 555
Diquat2764-72-90.0004549.2
Endothall145-73-30.009548.1
Endrin72-20-80.00001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Ethylene dibromide (EDB)106-93-40.00001504.1, 551.1
Glyphosate1071-83-60.006547, SM-6651
Heptachlor76-44-80.00004505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Heptachlor epoxide1024-57-30.00002505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Hexachlorobenzene118-74-10.0001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene77-47-40.0001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
3-Hydroxycarbofuran16655-82-62.0531.1, SM-6610
Lindane58-89-90.00002505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Methomyl16752-77-50.5531.1, SM-6610
Methoxychlor72-43-50.0001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
Metolachlor51218-45-20.75507, 508.1, 525.2
Metribuzin21087-64-90.75507, 508.1, 525.2
Oxamyl (vydate)23135-22-00.002531.1, SM-6610
Pentachlorophenol (PCP)87-86-50.00004515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 525.2, 555, ASTMD5317- 93
Picloram51918-02-10.0001515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
Polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs)6 (as decachlorobiphenyl)
1336-36-30.0001508A
Aroclor 101612674-11-20.00008505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Aroclor 122111104-28-20.02505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Aroclor 123211141-16-50.0005505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Aroclor 124253469-21-90.0003505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Aroclor 124812672-29-60.0001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Aroclor 125411097-69-10.0001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Aroclor 126011096-82-50.0002505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
Propachlor1918-16-70.5508, 508.1, 525.2
Simazine4122-34-90.00075058, 507, 508.1,525.2, 551.1
(2,4,5-TP) (Silvex)793-72-10.0002515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
Toxaphene (Technical)8001-35-20.001505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)8,91746-01-60.0000000051613

1 CAS No. — Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number

2 The EDL or Estimated Detection Limit is given with the EPA Analytical Method cited.

Footnote 3 changed from "Detection limit" to "Detection". Compare 40CFR141.24(h)(18). Also, Part 5 definition is circular.

3 Detection as used in this context shall be defined as, greater than or equal to the concentration cited in this table for the individual contaminant.

4 Substitution of the detector specified in Method 505, 507, 508 or 508.1 for the purpose of achieving lower detection limits is allowed as follows: either an electron capture or nitrogen phosphorous detector may be used provided all regulatory requirements and quality control criteria are met.

5 Accurate determination of the chlorinated esters requires hydrolysis of the sample as described in EPA Methods 515.1, 515.2 , 515.3 and 555, and ASTM.

6 If PCBs (as one of seven Aroclors) are detected in any sample analyzed using Methods 505 or 508, the system shall reanalyze the sample using Method 508A to quantitate PCBs (as decachlorobiphenyl). Compliance with the PCB MCL shall be determined based on the quantitative results of analyses using method 508A.

7 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyl) propionic acid

8 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

9 A nitrogen-phosphorous detector should be substituted for the electron capture detector in Method 505 (or another approved method should be used) to determine alachlor, atrazine and simazine, if lower detection limits are required.

(3) Water Sample Compositing Requirements for Pesticides, Dioxin and PCBs

The State may reduce the total number of samples collected and analyzed in accordance with Table 9C by allowing the use of compositing. Equal size samples from a maximum of five separate sampling points are allowed. The number of samples included in the composite must also be less than the ratio of the Maximum Contaminant Level divided by the detection level for the contaminant as reported by the State certified laboratory. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory.

(a) If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to the detection limit of any organic chemicals listed under paragraph (2) of this section, then a separate follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite. These samples must be analyzed for the contaminants which were detected in the composite sample.

(b) If duplicates or residual portions of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in the composites are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. This additional sample must be analyzed and the results reported to the State within 14 days of collection.

(c) In systems serving fewer than 3,300 persons, the State may permit compositing among different systems provided the 5-sample limit is maintained. In systems serving 3,300 or more persons, the State may permit compositing of samples from up to five sampling locations within the system, provided the reporting limit is maintained.

C. Propylene Glycol

(1) Approved Methods - Analysis for glycol shall be conducted using the following methods:

ContaminantCAS No.1 Method Detection Limit (mg/L)2Analytical Method3
Total glycol---0.05APC-44
Propylene glycol57-55-60.01Westchester County FID Method
Ethylene glycol107-21-10.01Westchester County FID Method

1 CAS No. — Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number

2 The State certified laboratory must report a detection level equal to or less than those listed in order for the analytical result to be indicative of a contaminant being "not detected".

3 If glycol is detected by Method APC-44 at 0.1 mg/L or greater, the State will require laboratory verification that the total glycol consists of less than 0.05 mg/L of ethylene glycol using the Westchester County FID method. The Westchester County FID method can distinguish between propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

(2) Analytical Method Number and Reference.

REFERENCE: Procedure for Method APC-44 — “Method for the Determination of Ethylene Glycol in Water” — Revision 1/91 may be obtained from the New York State Department of Health’s Wadsworth Laboratories and Research — Division of Environmental Sciences, Albany, New York. The telephone number is (518) 474-4170.

REFERENCE: Procedure for the Westchester County FID Method — “Analyzing Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol in Water Supplies” may be obtained from Westchester County Department of Laboratories and Research Environmental Services, 2 Dana Road, Valhalla, New York, 10595. The telephone number is (914) 595-5575.

D. Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE)

(1) Approved Methods - Analysis for MTBE shall be conducted using the following methods:

ContaminantCAS No.1Method Detection Limit (mg/L)2Analytical Method
MTBE1634-04-42.5EPA 502.23
MTBE1634-04-42.5EPA 524.23

1 CAS No. — Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number

2 The State certified laboratory must report a detection level equal to or less than those listed in order for the analytical result to be indicative of a contaminant being not detected. 3 EPA Method 502.2 and 524.2 as set forth in the New York State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) manual, modified on May 15, 2000.

E. Disinfectants, Disinfection Byproduct Precursors, and Disinfection Byproducts (Table 9A/9B in Subpart 5-1)

(1) Approved Methods — the analysis of disinfection byproducts and disinfection byproduct precursors shall be conducted using the following methods (for approved methods for bromate, bromide and chlorite, see section I. B. of this appendix):

ParameterMethodology1Reference Method
Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs)P&T/GC/EICD & PIDEPA method 502.22
P&T/GC/MS EPA Method 524.2
LLE/GC/ECD EPA Method 551.1
Haloacetic Acids (HAA5)LLE/GC/ECD Standard Method 6251 B
SPE/GC/ECD EPA Method 552.1
LLE/GC/ECD EPA Method 552.2
Total Organic Carbon (TOC)High-Temperature CombustionStandard Method 5310 B
Persulfate-Ultraviolet or Heated- Persulfate Oxidation Standard Method 5310 C
Wet-Oxidation Standard Method 5310 D
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)3,4High-Temperature Combustion Standard Method 5310 B
Persulfate-Ultraviolet or Heated- Persulfate Oxidation Standard Method 5310 C
Wet-Oxidation Standard Method 5310 D
UV2543,4Ultraviolet Absorption MethodStandard Method 5910 B

1 P&T=purge and trap; GC=gas chromatography; EICD=electrolytic conductivity detector; PID=photoionization detector; MS=mass spectrometer; LLE=liquid/liquid extraction; ECD=electron capture detector; SPE= solid phase extractor.

2 If TTHMs are the only parameter being measured in the sample, then a PID is not required.

3 DOC and UV254 values are used to calculate Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA). SUVA is equal to the UV254 divided by the DOC concentration. SUVA must be measured on water before the addition of disinfectants or oxidants to the system. DOC and UV254 samples used to determine a SUVA value must be taken at the same time and at the same location.

4 Prior to analysis, DOC and UV254 samples must be filtered through a 0.45 mm pore-diameter filter. Water passed through the 0.45 mm pore-diameter filter prior to filtration of the sample must serve as the filtered blank.

F. Sample Preservation and Holding Time Requirements

MethodPreservative Sample Holding Time Extract Holding Time Suggested Sample SizeType of Container
502.2Sodium Thiosulfate or Ascorbic Acid, 4°C, HCl pH<2 14 days40-120 mLGlass with PTFE lined septum
504.1Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C14 days4°C, 24 hours40 mLGlass with PTFE lined septum
505Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C 14 days (7 days for Heptachlor) C, 24 hours40 mLGlass with PTFE lined septum
506Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 days4°C, dark 14 days 1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap
507Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 days (see method for exceptions) 4°C, dark 14 days 1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap
508Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C, Dark 7 days (see method for exceptions) 4°C, dark 14 days 1 LGlass with PTFE lined cap
508ACool, 4°C 14 days30 days1 LGlass with PTFE lined cap
508.1Sodium Sulfite, HCl pH<2 Cool, 4°C 14 days (see method for exceptions) 30 days1 LGlass with PTFE lined cap
515.1Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 days4°C, dark 28 days 1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap
515.2Sodium Thiosulfate, HCl pH<2 Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 daysless than of equal to 4°C, dark, 14 days 1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap
524.2Ascorbic Acid, HCl pH<2, Cool 4°C 14 days40-120 mLGlass with PTFE lined septum
525.2Sodium Sulfite, Dark, Cool 4°C, HCl pH<2 14 days (see method for exceptions) 30 days from collection 1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap
531.1, 6610Sodium Thiosulfate, monochloroacetic acid, pH<3, Cool 4°C Cool 4°C 28 days60 mLGlass with PTFE lined Septum
547Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool, 4°C 14 days (18 months frozen) 60 mLGlass with PTFE lined septum
548.1Sodium Thiosulfate (HCl pH 1.5-2 if high biological activity), Cool 4°C, Dark 7 days14 days less than or equal to 4°Cgreater than or equal to 250 mLAmber Glass with PTFE lined septum
549.1Sodium Thiosulfate, (H2SO4 pH<2 if biologically active), Cool 4°C, Dark 7 days21 daysgreater than or equal to 250 mLHigh Density Amber Plastic or Silanized Amber Glass
550, 550.1Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool 4°C, HCl pH<27 days550 — 30 days
550.1 — 40 days Dark, 4°C
1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap
551Sodium Thiosulfate, Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Chloride, or Ascorbic Acid, HCl pH 4.5-5.0 Cool 4°C 14 daysgreater than or equal to 40 mL Glass with PTFE lined septum
555Sodium Sulfite HCl, pH less than or equal to 2, Dark, Cool 4°C 14 daysgreater than or equal to 100 mL Glass with PTFE lined cap
1613BSodium Thiosulfate, Cool 0-4°C, Dark Recommended 40 days 1 LAmber Glass with PTFE lined cap

* PTFE — polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon)

G. METHOD REFERENCES

Procedures for analysis of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids using Methods 502.2, 524.2, 551.1, and 552.2 may be found in “Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water — Supplement III”, EPA/600/R-95/131, August 1995.

Procedures for Methods 502.2, 505, 507, 508, 508A, 515.1, and 531.1 may be found in “Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water”, EPA-600/4-88-039, December 1988, Revised, July 1991.

Procedures for Methods 506, 547, 550, 550.1, and 551.1 may be found in “Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water — Supplement I”, EPA/600-4-90-020, July 1990.

Procedures for Methods 515.2, 524.2, 548.1, 552.1, 552.2 and 555 may be found in “Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water — Supplement II”, EPA/600/R-92/129, August 1992.

Method 1613 is titled, “Tetra-Through Octa-chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dilution HRGC/HRMS”, EPA 821-B-94-005, October 1994.

These documents are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) PB91-231480, PB91-146027, PB92-207703 and PB95-104774, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll-free number is 800-553-6847.

EPA Methods 504.1, 508.1 and 525.2 are available from US EPA EMSL-Cincinnati, OH 45268. The phone number is (513)-569-7586.

Procedure for Method 6651 may be found in “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1992.

Procedure for Method 6610 may be found in “Supplement to the 18th Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 1994, American Public Health Association.

Procedures for Methods 5310B, 5310C, and 5310D may be found in “Supplement to the 19th Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, American Public Health Association, 1996.

Procedure for Method 5910B may be found in “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th Edition”, American Public Health Association, 1995.

ASTM Method D5317-93 can be obtained from the “Annual Book of ASTM Standards”, 1994 and 1996, Vol. 11.01 and 11.02, American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

III. RADIONUCLIDES (Table 7 in Subpart 5-1)

A. Laboratory Certification — the analysis of Radionuclides shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received approval of the State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) according to the following approval conditions:

(a) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples that include those substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State.

(b) Laboratories must achieve quantitative results within the acceptance limits on 80% of the analytes included in the PT sample. Acceptance is defined as within the 95% confidence interval around the mean of the PT study data.

(c) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:

ContaminantAcceptance Limit
Gross alpha±50%
Gross beta±30%
Cesium-134±30%
Iodine-131±30%
Strontium-89, 90 ±30%
Tritium ±20%
Gamma emitters
Radium-226 ±30%
Radium-228 ±50%
Uranium ±30%

(d) Achieve the following detection limits:

The more recent 40CFR141.25(c)(1) lists 1 µg/L for Uranium as the Detection Limit.

ContaminantDetection Limit (pCi/L)
Gross alpha3
Gross beta4
Radium-2261
Radium-2281
Cesium-13410
Strontium-8910
Strontium-902
Iodine-1311
Tritium1,000
Other Radionuclides and Photon/Gamma Emitters 1/10th of the MCL

B. (1) Approved Methods — the analysis of Radionuclides shall be conducted using the following methods:

ContaminantMethodologyReference (method or page number)
EPA Methods1 EPA Methods2 EPA Methods3 EPA Methods4 Standard Methods5 ASTM Methods6 USGS Methods7 DOE Methods8 Other Methods
Naturally occurring
Gross alpha11 and betaEvaporation900.0p. 100-01p. 1 302, 7110 BR-1120-76
Gross alpha11 Co-precipitation00-027110 C
Radium-226Radon emanation903.1p. 16Ra-04p. 197500-Ra C D3454-91R-1141-76Ra-05N.Y.9
Radiochemical903.0p. 13Ra-03304, 305, 7500-Ra BD 2460-90R-1140-76
Radium-228Radiochemical904.0p. 24Ra-05p. 19304, 7500-Ra DR-1142-76N.Y.9
N. J.10
Uranium12 Radiochemical908.07500-U B
Fluorometric908.17500-U C (17th Ed.)D 2907-91R-1180-76, R-1181-76U-04
Alpha spectrometry00-07p. 337500-U C (18th or 19th Ed.)D 3972-90 R-1182-76U-02
Laser PhosphorimetryD 5174-91
Man-made
Cesium-134Radiochemical901.0p. 47500-Cs BD-2459-72R-1111-76
Gamma ray spectrometry901.1p. 927120 (19th Ed.)D 3649-91R-1110-764.5.2.3
Iodine-131Radiochemical902.0p. 6
p. 9
7500-1 B
7500-1 C
7500-1 D
D 3649-91
Gamma ray spectrometry901.1p. 927120 (19th Ed.)D 4785-884.5.2.3
Strontium-89, 90Radiochemical905.0p. 29Sr-4p. 65303, 7500-Sr BR-1160-76Sr-01
Sr-02
TritiumLiquid scintillation906.0p. 34H-2p. 87306, 7500-3H BD 4107-91R-1171-76
Gamma emittersGamma ray spectrometry901.1
902.0
901.0
p. 927120 (19th Ed.),
7500-Cs B,
7500-I B
D 3649-91
D 4785-88
R-1110-764.5.2.3

1“Prescribed Procedures for Measurement of Radioactivity in Drinking Water”, EPA 600/4-80-032 , August 1980. Available at U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (Telephone 800-553-6847) , PB 80-224744.

2“Interim Radiochemical Methodology for Drinking Water”, EPA 600/4-75-008(revised), March 1976. Available at NTIS, ibid. PB 253258.

3 “Radiochemistry Procedures Manual”, EPA 520/5-84-006, December 1987. Available at NTIS, ibid. PB 84 - 215581.

4 “Radiochemical Analytical Procedures for Analysis of Environmental Samples”, March 1979. Available at NTIS, ibid. EMSL LV 053917.

5 “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 13th, 17th, 18th, 19th Editions, 1971, 1989, 1992, 1995. Available at American Public Health Association. All methods are in the 17th, 18th and 19th editions except 7500-U C Fluorometric Uranium was discontinued after the 17th Edition, 7120 Gamma Emitters is only in the 19th Edition, and 302, 303, 304, 305 and 306 are only in the 13th Edition.

6 “Annual Book of ASTM Standards”, Vol. 11.02, 1994; any year containing the cited version of the method may be used. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

7 “Methods for Determination of Radioactive Substances in Water and Fluvial Sediments”, Chapter A5 in Book 5 of “Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey”, 1977. Available at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225-0425.

8 “EML Procedures Manual”, 27th Edition, Volume 1, 1990. Available at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 376 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014-3621.

9 “Determination of Ra-226 and Ra-228 (Ra-02)”, January 1980, Revised June 1982. Available at Radiological Sciences Institute Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201.

10 “Determination of Radium 228 in Drinking Water”, August 1980. Available at State of New Jersey, Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Environmental Quality, Bureau of Radiation and Inorganic Analytical Services, 9 Ewing Street, Trenton, NJ 08625.

11 Natural uranium and thorium-230 are approved as gross alpha-particle activity calibration standards for gross alpha co-precipitation and evaporation methods; americium-241 is approved for use with the gross alpha co-precipitation methods.

12 If uranium (U) is determined by mass-type methods (i.e., fluorometric or laser phosphorimetry), a 0.67 pCi/µg of uranium conversion factor must be used. This conversion factor is conservative and is based on the 1:1 activity ratio of U-234 to U-238 that is characteristic of naturally-occurring uranium in rock.

C. Sample Collection, Preservation and Instrumentation Requirements

Sample collection for Radionuclides shall be conducted using the sample preservation, container, and maximum holding time procedures specified in the following table:

ParameterPreservative1Sample Holding Time2Type of ContainerInstrumentation3
Gross alphaConc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA, B, or G
Gross betaConc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA or G
Strontium-89Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA or G
Strontium-90Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA or G
Radium-226Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA, B, D or G
Radium-228Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA or G
Cesium-134Conc. HCl to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassA, C or G
Iodine-131None8 daysPlastic or GlassA, C or G
TritiumNone6 monthsGlassE
UraniumConc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassF
Photon emittersConc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <246 monthsPlastic or GlassC

1 It is recommended that the preservative be added to the sample at the time of collection unless suspended solids activity is to be measured. It is also recommended that samples be filtered, if suspended or settleable solids are present, prior to adding preservative, at the time of collection. However, if the sample has to be shipped to a laboratory or storage area, acidification of the sample (in its original container) may be delayed for a period not to exceed 5 days. A minimum of 16 hours must elapse between acidification and analysis.

2 Holding time is defined as the period from time of sampling to time of analysis. In all cases, samples should be analyzed as soon after collection as possible. If a composite sample is prepared, a holding time cannot exceed 12 months.

3 A = Low background proportional system; B = Alpha and beta scintillation system; C = Gamma spectrometer [Ge(Hp) or Ge(Li)]; D = Scintillation cell system; E = Liquid scintillation system; F = Fluorometer; G = Low background alpha and beta counting system other than gasflow proportional.

4 If HCl is used to acidify samples which are to be analyzed for gross alpha or gross beta activities, the acid salts must be converted to nitrate salts before transfer of the samples to planchets.

Effective Date: November 9, 2011

IV. MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS (Tables 6, 11, and 11A and 11B)

A. Laboratory Certification — Measurement of total coliforms, fecal coliforms,E. coli, enterococci, coliphage and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) must be conducted by a laboratory certified by the Department’s Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) for the method used.

B. Approved Methods — the following analytical methods are acceptable for measurement of microbiological contaminants:

Approved Methods1,2MediaReference Method3,4
Total Coliforms5
Fermentation broth method6,7,8LTB BGLB BrothSM 9221B
P-A Broth BGLB Broth8,10 SM 9221D
Enzyme substrate methodColilert, Colilert-1811SM 9223
Colisure12,13SM 9223
E*colite Test14
Membrane filter methodmEndo or LES-EndoSM 9222B
MI Agar9
m-ColiBlue 2415
Fecal Coliforms5
Fermentation broth methodEC brothSM 9221E
A-1 broth17SM 9221E
Membrane filter methodMFCSM 9222D
Escherichia coli
Enzyme substrate methodColilert or Colilert-18SM 9223
Colisure12,13SM 9223
E*Colite14
LTB or P/A broth then ECMUG16SM 9221F16
Membrane filter methodMI Medium9
m-ColiBlue2415
mEndo or LES Endo16 then NA-MUG16 SM 9222G16
Heterotrophic Bacteria5
Pour plate methodSM 9215B
Enterococci
Multiple-Tube Technique9230B18
Membrane Filter TechniqueEPA Method 160019
Enterolert20
Coliphage
Two-Step Enrichment Presence-Absence ProcedureEPA Method 160121
Single Agar Layer ProcedureEPA Method 160222

1 It is strongly recommended that laboratories evaluate the false-positive and negative rates for the method(s) they use for monitoring total coliforms. Laboratories are also encouraged to establish false-positive rates within their own laboratory and sample matrix (drinking water or source water) with the intent that if the method they choose has an unacceptable false-positive or negative rate, another method can be used. It is suggested that laboratories perform these studies on a minimum of 5% of all total coliform-positive samples, except for those methods where verification/confirmation is already required, e.g., the M-Endo and LES Endo Membrane Filter Tests, Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique, and Presence-Absence Coliform Test. Methods for establishing false-positive and negative-rates may be based on lactose fermentation, the rapid test for β-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, multi-test identification systems, or equivalent confirmation tests. False-positive and false negative information is often available in published studies and/or from the manufacturer(s).

2 Preparation of EC medium is described in Method 9221 E (paragraph 1a) and preparation of Nutrient Agar is described in Method 9221 B (paragraph 3). Both methods are in“Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 20th Edition, 1998, and 21st Edition, 2005; either edition may be used.

3 SM = Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edition, 1998, or 21st edition, 2005, American Public Health Association; either edition may be used.

4 Methods 9221 A, B; 9222 A, B, C; 9221 D and 9223 are contained in “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 20th Edition, 1998, and 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association; either edition may be used.

5 The time from sample collection of a drinking water sample to initiation of total coliform analysis may not exceed 30 hours. The time from sample collection of a drinking water sample to initiation of heterotrophic bacteria analysis may not exceed 8 hours. Raw water samples may not exceed 8 hours. Systems are encouraged, but not required to hold samples below 10°C during transit.

6 Lactose broth, as commercially available, may be used in lieu of lauryl tryptose broth, if the system conducts at least 25 parallel tests between this medium and lauryl tryptose broth using the water normally tested, and this comparison demonstrates that the false-positive rate for total coliforms, using lactose broth, is less than 10 percent.

7 If inverted tubes are used to detect gas production, the media should cover these tubes at least one-half to two-thirds after the sample is added.

8 No requirement exists to run the completed phase on 10 percent of all total coliform-positive confirmed tubes.

9 Preparation and use of MI agar is set forth in the article, “New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliform and Escherichia coli in water” by Brenner K.P., et al., 1993, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3534-3544. Also available from the Office of Water Resources Center (RC-4100), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20460, EPA 600/J-99/225.

10 Six-times formulation strength may be used if the medium is filter-sterilized rather than autoclaved.

11 The Chromogenic Substrate Coliform Test or ONPG-MUG Test is also known as the Autoanalysis Colilert System.

12 A description of the Colisure Test, Feb. 28, 1994, may be obtained from the IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092.

13 The Colisure test may be read after an incubation time of 24 hours.

14 A description of the E*Colite® Test,“Presence/Absence for Coliforms and E. coli in Water”, Dec. 21, 1997, is available from Charm Sciences, Inc., 659 Andover St., Lawrence, MA 01843-1032 or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.

15 A description of the m-ColiBlue24® Test, Aug. 17, 1999, is available from Hach Company, 100 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010 or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460.

16 EC–MUG (Method 9221F) or NA–MUG (Method 9222G) can be used for E. coli testing step as described in § 141.21(f)(6)(i) or (ii) after use of Standard Methods 9221B, 9221 D, (for 9221F) or 9222B, or 9222C (for 9222G).

17 A-1 Broth may be held up to 3 months in a tightly closed screwcap tube at 4°C.

18 Methods are described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th edition, 1998 or 21st edition, 2005; copies may be obtained from the American Public Health Association.

19 EPA Method 1600: Enterococci in Water by Membrane Filtration Using membrane- Enterococcus Indoxyl–b–D–Glucoside Agar (mEI) EPA 821–R–02–022 (September 2002) is an approved variation of Standard Method 9230C. The method is available at http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/1600sp02.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460. The holding time and temperature for ground water samples are specified in footnote 2 above, rather than as specified in Section 8 of EPA Method 1600.

20 Medium is available through IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092. Preparation and use of the medium is set forth in the article "Evaluation of Enterolert for Enumeration of Enterococci in Recreational Waters," by Budnick, G.E., Howard, R.T., and Mayo, D.R., 1996, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62:3881–3884.

21 EPA Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Two-step Enrichment Procedure; April 2001, EPA 821-R-01-030. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/1601ap01.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC– 4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.

22 EPA Method 1602: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Single Agar Layer (SAL) Procedure; April 2001, EPA 821-R-01-029. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/1602ap01.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC-4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.

Effective Date: May 26, 2004

V. TURBIDITY (Table 4)

A. Approved Methods — shall be conducted using the following methods:

ParameterMethodologyReference Methods1
TurbidityNephelometric Method2130 B
Nephelometric method180.12
Great Lakes Instruments Method 23

1 “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, and 19th Edition, 1995, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.

2 “Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples”, EPA- 600/R-93-100, August 1993. Available at NTIS, PB94-121811.

3 GLI Method 2, "Turbidity" November 2, 1992 Great Lakes Instruments, Inc., 8855 North 55th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53223.

Effective Date: November 9, 2011

VI. RESIDUAL DISINFECTANTS

A. Approved Methods — The analysis of residual disinfectants shall be conducted using one of the following analytical methods:

DisinfectantReference MethodologyReference Methods1
Free and Combined Chlorine2Amperometric Titration Method4500-Cl D
Low Level Amperometric Titration4500-Cl E
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric Method4500-Cl F
DPD Colorimetric Method3 4500-Cl G
Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method4500-Cl H
OzoneIndigo Colorimetric Method4500-O3 B
Chlorine DioxideDPD Method4500-ClO2 D
Amperometric Method II4500-ClO2 E

1 “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 20th Edition, 1998, or 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation; either edition may be used.

2 Free and total chlorine residuals may be measured continuously by adapting a specified chlorine residual method for use with a continuous monitoring instrument provided the chemistry, accuracy, and precision of the measurement remain the same. Instruments used for continuous monitoring must be calibrated with a grab sample measurement at least every 5 days, or with a protocol approved by the State.

3 The Hach Company Method No. 8167 (Version no. 1, dated April 24, 1995) as found in Hach Method 8021 in the “Water Quality Analysis Handbook”, 3rd edition, by Hach Company, Loveland, Colorado, 1997, pg. 335, for determining total chlorine is an acceptable version of the spectrophotometric, DPD, Standard Method 4500-Cl-G in “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 20th Edition, 1998, or 21st Edition, 2005; either edition may be used.

VII. GENERAL REFERENCES

More information about the regulations pertaining to the parameters listed in this appendix can be found in 40CFR parts 141.23, 141.24, National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.

Copies of documents referenced in this appendix may be obtained from the National Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Pont Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161 or online at: http://www.ntis.gov/.

Copies of cited references are available for review and inspection from Records Access Officer, Department of Health, Corning Tower, Room 2364, Albany, New York 12237-0044 and New York State Department of State, Office of Information Services, 99 Washington Ave., Albany, New York 12231.

Copies of “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, are available for review and inspection from the Department of Health, Bureau of Water Supply Protection, 547 River Street, Room 400, Troy, NY 12180.

U.S. EPA. “Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods”, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC 20460. EPA/600/R-94/173, October 1994 (EPA, 1994).

Copies of EPA analytical methods may be obtained online at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/drinkingwater/labcert/analyticalmethods_ogwdw.cfm, by contacting EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791, or by contacting the EPA using one of the contact options listed at http://water.epa.gov/drink/contact.cfm.


American Public Health Association.
1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
800 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20001
www.apha.org